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Effect of hormonal treatments in P. thunbergii cuttings to produce shallow roots in bonsai trees grown for

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Pinus thunbergii is a popular species of conifers grown as bonsai. In an effort to produce superior surface roots in P . thunbergii bonsai enthusiasts have developed a method to make cuttings of young plants to replace any taproots with lateral roots distributed radially. These lateral roots are developed to improve the appearance of the tree when ripe and help develop the conical shape or style near the base of the trunk. The aim of this study is to measure the effect of different treatments on root production developed through the technique of “cutting seedlings.”

The cuts were made from 63 seedlings P . thunbergii planted 84 days earlier. Proven treatments include 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (Dip ‘n Grow), 1-Naphthaleneacetamide (Rootone) and a fertilizer low dose (Olivia Cloning Gel).

root treatments exceeded by a small margin controls when the product instructions were followed. Increasing the exposure to hormones stimulated increased root production.


Bonsai enthusiasts appreciate Japanese black pines, Pinus thunbergii , for age and character transmitted through its bark as much as by their shape and appearance general. surface roots of a pine play important to demonstrate the connection tree to the ground in the growing paper.

as black pine bonsai became more popular, producers have developed approaches to creating superior trees with shallow roots. By making a cut of a young seedling, a cultivator can essentially replace the taproot with several lateral roots spread radially. This approach has been known as the technique of “cutting seedlings.”

The idea behind this study is to guide the production of pine trees created by the cutting technique seedlings. While seedlings-cuts can be developed without the use of hormones, their application can produce significantly more root-cuts made without them seedling.

This study is limited to the comparison of the basic approaches for creating seedlings and cuttings does not allow specific recommendations for the production of higher roots. It is intended as a preliminary investigation designed to guide future efforts to optimize the production of roots of bonsai in P . thunbergii and Pinus densiflora .

Materials and Methods

Creating seedling-cuttings

P. thunbergii seeds were planted in a bed containing equal parts of lava pumice and pebbles clay (particle size was between 1 mm – 5 mm) and is covered with a thin layer of sand (particle size 1 mm – 2 mm) on 9 February 2013 after 84 days the seedlings were uprooted and the primary roots were removed with a razor blade leaving approximately 2.5 cm of the stem. The cutting is done with a cutting action to avoid crushing of stem tissue. The stakes are placed in the water after the primary roots were removed to prevent drying.

Pine seedlings - May 4, 2013
Figure 1. P. thunbergii seedlings 84 days after planting seedlings lava, pumice and clay balls covered with thin layer of sand. The color red should indicate the optimal time for making seedling-cuts.

Making a seedling-cutting

Figure 2. hotbed of cutting.

cutting Treatments

Dip ‘n Grow Treatment: Sections were placed in a vial with Dip’ n Grow (1-naphthaleneacetic acid to 0.05% 10-fold dilution) for 5 seconds per the manufacturer’s instructions. A second batch was maintained in the vial for 5 minutes to measure the effect of increased exposure.

Dip 'n Grow

Figure 3. seed cutting is immersed in Dip ‘n Grow.

Treatment Rootone :. The cuts were immersed in Rootone (1-Naphthaleneacetamide 0.2%) and the excess powder was extinguished

Figure 4. Rootone.

After dipping
Figure 5. After dipping seedling cutting Rootone.

After flicking off excess hormone

Figure 6. After flicking the excess hormone.

Treatment Gel Olivia Cloning: The cuts were immersed in gel (N-P-K: 0.08-0.15-0.09). Before planting

Olivia's Cloning Gel

Figure 7. cuttings seedlings cloning gel.

Control :. The stakes were planted without hormonal or other treatments

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cut in the first root: A variation of the control these seedlings were cut below the first root. taproots were removed leaving a lateral single root.

Cutting to 1 root

Figure 8. Removing below first lateral root taproot.

Planting seedling-cuttings

The cuts were planted in a bed of lava, pumice and clay like pebbles to bed used for germination. Instead of sand, channels balls small clay (particle size of 1 mm – 2 mm) were used to provide additional moisture for cuttings

Planting medium

. Figure 9. Plantar medium used to grow seedlings-cuts.

The bed was watered before planting and perforations were made with a 2.5 mm cable. treated cuttings were placed in these holes and the sand was added to keep the cuts in place. Sections 1.5 mm aluminum wire is used to set cut foliage down to prevent cuts from moving during irrigation. Plantlets-cuts remained outside under an awning 30% and watered when planting medium began to dry.

Pinning down cuttings with wire
Figure 10. Aluminum wire ensures cuttings.

As planted

Figure 11. After planting, seedlings were watered 63-slice smoothly.

Results and Discussion

-cuts Seedlings were watered regularly throughout the summer, autumn and winter. In winter, some seedlings showed signs of yellowing, a sign of stress due to temperature, culture conditions, fungi and / or infestation. Plantlets-cuts were uprooted 295 days after planting, when apical buds began to spread.

February 23, 2014

Figure 12. seedling-cuts 295 days after planting, 23 February 2014.

Mortality it was generally low (6.3%) but significantly higher between control and cut to a seedling root-cuttings (25%) than in the treatment group (3.6%). As mortality could be attributed to the activity of birds as well as cutting treatment, mortality was not considered as a factor contributing to the study results.

Seedlings-sections were evaluated by counting the divisions of the taproot. Results for the control group and the group reduced to one of lateral roots showed no differences, producing every 2-3 lateral roots per seedling cutting. The gel cloning performed slightly better than the control, while the hormonal treatments produce better results. The treatment produced the greatest number of roots was the group soaked in the Dip ‘n Grow solution for 5 minutes, 60 times the recommended exposure.

Roots produced by 5 minutes in Dip 'n Grow
treated Figure 13. hotbed of cutting Dip ‘n Grow -. 5 minutes of treatment

The reason for taking two approaches to Dip ‘n Grow treatment is that it offers the best flexibility in terms of managing exposure to cutting treatment. Mother holding a powder no longer allows for greater absorption of the hormone. Exposure to nutrient gel remains the same regardless of the time spent in the gel, because the mother is pasted after retiring. stem tissue has some ability to absorb liquid hormone as demonstrated by the increased production of roots as a result of increased exposure to liquid immersion ‘n Grow.

Chart showing minimum, maximum and average values per treatment

Figure 14. Average number per seedling root cutting. Range indicates the minimum and maximum values.

This study suggests that the variation of time in a liquid solution of the hormone can provide some flexibility to control the production of roots. Producers wishing more shallow roots could increase the exposure to hormones while producers wish they could least limit exposure. Further studies are needed to determine expectations for root production based on different levels of hormone exposure.

Directions for Further Study

In addition to suggesting a correlation between hormone exposure and root production, this study shows that a variety of approaches can produce seedlings-cuts acceptable for use as bonsai . Other research could add to these results by:

  • Measuring the effect of increased exposure to hormones to provide guidance on the production of roots exposure time. This would allow producers to control root production to suit your needs.
  • Measuring the effect on stem length for cutting. He makes more or less long stems make a noticeable difference?
  • Varying the time when seedlings-cuts are made.
  • Change the setting of planting to ensure that all seedlings-cuts receive the same heat and humidity. Planting the cuttings seedlings in one containers makes the amount of light received equal but seedlings planted near the sides of the container receive more heat and dry faster while the stakes towards the center of the pot are more available moisture for them.
  • Measuring root mass in general and / or mass of the plant to determine which approach leads to more vigorous trees.
  • The variation of timing and types of fertilizers applied during the growing season.
  • Varying the culture medium and / or exposure to sunlight to determine the optimum conditions for increasing vigor.
  • The determination of the optimum number of surface roots of trees of different styles and sizes. This is a broader and more subjective area of ​​research that is linked more closely with the fundamental purpose of creating bonsai as objects for aesthetic appreciation.
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Supporting Information

Roots by seedling-Court
Low Alto Price
Dip N Grow 5 minutes (n = 7) 4 12 6.3
Dip N Grow 5 seconds (n = 16) 2 8 3.9
Rootone (n = 15) 1 7 3.5
Olivia Cloning gel (n = 15) 2 5 3.0
Control (n = 3) 2 3 2.7
CUT to a root (n = 3) 2 3 2.7

Table S1. Low, medium and high number of roots of seedlings by cutting.

Roots produced by 5 minutes in Dip 'n Grow
. Figure S1 Dip ‘n Grow – 5 minute treatment

1a - Dip 'n Grow
Figure S2. Treated hotbed of cutting Dip ‘n Grow for 5 seconds


Figure S3. control sample.

roots cut
hotbed # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 # 5 # 6 # 7 # 8 # 9 # 10 # 11 # 12 # 13 # 14 # 15 # 16
Dip ‘n Grow – 5 seconds (n = 16) 2 5 5 2 5 3 4 3 8 3 2 3 6 5 4 3
Olivia Cloning gel (n = 15) 2 3 2 5 3 1 3 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 5 x
Rootone (n = 15) 4 7 3 4 3 6 3 3 2 3 2 5 1 4 3 x
Control (n = 3) 3 3 2 x
CUT to a root (n = 3) 3 3 2 x
Dip ‘n Grow – 5 minutes (n = 7) 7 4 6 5 12 5 5

Table S2. Number of divisions primary roots seedling-cuts observed 295 days after cuts were made. “X” indicates seedling-cuts who died or disappeared.

6 - Dip 'n Grow (5 min)
. Figure S4 Dip ‘n Grow – 5 minute treatment

1a - Dip 'n Grow
Figure S5 Dip’ n Grow -. 5 seconds treatment (seedling-cuts 1-8)

1b - Dip 'n Grow
Figure S6 Dip ‘n Grow -. 5 seconds treatment (seedling-cuts 9-16)

3a - Rootone
Figure S7. Rootone (seedling-cuts 1-7)

3b - Rootone
Figure S8. Rootone (seedling-cuts 8-15)

2a - Olivia's Cloning Gel
Figure S9. Cloning gel Olivia (seedling-cuts 1-7)

2b - Olivia's Cloning Gel
Figure S10. Cloning gel Olivia (seedling-cuts 8-15)

5 - cut to 1 root
Figure S11. Cut to a root

4 - control
Figure S12. The control group.

Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank Boon Manakitivipart and Kathy Shaner to introduce the technique of planting cutting and Kindai Bonsai and bonsai today for publishing articles on the subject.

Author Contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: JD. Performed the experiments: JD. Analyzed data: JD. He wrote the manuscript :. JD

Keywords: Conifers, hormones, horticulture, lateral roots, plant roots, seedlings

Quote: Dupuich J (2015) Effect of hormonal treatments in P . thunbergii cuttings to produce shallow roots in trees grown for bonsai. This bonsai night.

Financing :. This research was funded by the author

Conflict of interests:. The author has declared that no competing interests

Copyright © 2015 Dupuich. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Effect of hormonal treatments in P. thunbergii cuttings to produce shallow roots in bonsai trees grown for

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