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Basic care for growing a bonsai tree – Considering the species most commonly used for bonsai we can split them into Outer and Inner classes.
For overseas bonsai we must have exposure to direct sunlight for at least four hours daily. In this class we may cite as an example the conifers or popularly called “Pines”.
Indoor bonsai is necessary that receive direct and / or indirect light for 4 hours daily, it is advised that once a week the bonsai is exposed to direct sunlight, if possible in the morning for 3-4 hours.
Used more species
We can cultivate as bonsai almost all plants of woody stem. Give preference to small plants with leaves, in the case of fruit that the fruit is not too great.
Remember that each plant (species) has specific choice care plants for your region as it will be easier to grow them because they are already adapted to the climate.
A short list
Maple, Mulberry, Pomegranate Tree, Thuya Alligator, Ardisia, Happiness Tree, Weeping Willow, Azalea, Bamboo, Buganvillea, Thuya Hinoki, Buxus, Calliandra, Cedrinho, Podocarpus, Cherry Tree, Myrtle, Ficus, Surinam cherry, gardenia, jasmine, Jabuticabeira , mignonette, Juniper, Orange, Lemon Tree, Peach Tree, Manacá, Quince, Serissa, Pine, gossip, Nan-Ten, Pau-Brazil, Piracanta, Pereira, Thuya Degenerate, Acerola, Fuji, Matsu, Apple, …
Air pruning – Branches and Leaves: Pruning means to take excess branches and at the same time giving direction.
Once you’ve defined the position of the branches, the extent to which the bud grows, periodically just cut and reduce the size of the buds and twigs to always maintain visual harmony. The time of pruning depends on the species of plant grown and the season.
Pruning the Roots: Early spring is the most suitable period to accomplish root pruning and re-potting.
The species and age determine the frequency of pruning. Younger plants, where its root system is in full swing, the pruning are more frequent, every 1 or 2 years already in older plants, this interval is greater due to its vegetative growth cycle to be quite diminished.
The roots may be reduced by up to one third of its total.
It is important to use appropriate tools to avoid damaging the roots.
The root pruning is one of the most delicate tasks in the cultivation technique; if you are a beginner you should seek help from someone who has experience in gardening or bonsai.
To start a bonsai would be an appropriate species Serissa, resistant to various climates of Brazil and can be grown indoors or outdoors.
After root pruning, do not expose the bonsai to strong winds and leave it in partial shade for a period of 50 days and after this period, introducing the direct sun power up gradually exposed to full sun. Start with 1 hour and increase in the ratio of 1 hour 2 in 2 days until 6 hours. You can then leave it all day (full sun).
Do not apply fertilizers for a period of 30 to 40 days.
Type of Vessel: A variety of vessels for bonsai, considering that the vessel is part of bonsai, this should be chosen according to the desired style of bonsai. When growing a bonsai in the cascade style vase is high because you must ensure the support of bonsai stably.
The vessel must have drainage holes preventing be ponded water.
The color of the vase should be in harmony with colorful plant.
Earth: The composition of the earth can be divided into two basic types, one for conifers and other non-coniferous. Of the two basic types have small variations in the composition of the Earth; these variations are due to different needs of each species.
The more components used in the mixtures are:
– Black earth
– Red Earth
– Coarse sand
– Tanned manure
– Tree fern fiber
In figure (vessel) the number 1 represents the grit and the second composition of the earth for each type (species) of plant.
Fertilization: Fertilization can be monthly, decreasing in the winter months. Can be used:
Castor cake + bone meal mixed in equal amounts, should be placed on the surface of the vessel away from the trunk, in piles, after showering. Fish meal or fertilizer can also be used. Follow the dosage recommended by the manufacturer.
It is important to provide Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium for the plant.
Pests and Diseases: Both trees in nature, as plants grown in pots, are susceptible to pests and diseases. We may use preventive in some cases, but what will result is most certainly the attention, for example at the time of irrigation, examining its leaves and stems to note the presence of some pest and stop them when they are still in their initial phase .
Most common pests
most common diseases
It is important to put the bonsai in the sun so that through the process of photosynthesis to create their own means of defense and grow compact and healthy.
There are a plethora of books on bonsai for beginners and initiates. Books about gardening can also help the beginner, with basic knowledge in dealing with plants.This page is often found with these terms